Real Estate

1 Real Estate License with 30 Career Options

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我從2006年拿到Real Estate Salesperson License, 開始做住宅地產經紀開始到現在也十年了, 中間經歷過2008-2010金融風暴, 房價從2010年開始上揚至今七年, 似乎因供需不平衡, 依然不見熱度降低.  今年我因受朋友之託, 開始做住宅租賃管理, 因此開始準備考Broker License.

我想多數人應該不是很清楚房地產業的從業人員的基本資格要求, 職稱, 職務, 薪資, 支出費用, 工作內容等, 就讓我詳細地寫一篇介紹文, 來紀念我做地產經紀人的第一個十年.

Real Estate Agent有二種執照: Salesperson and Broker.

Salesperson的考照資格要求:

Successful completion of three college-level courses is required to qualify for a real estate salesperson examination:

  1. Real Estate Principles, and
  2. Real Estate Practice, and
  3. One course from the following list:
    • Real Estate Appraisal
    • Property Management
    • Real Estate Finance
    • Real Estate Economics
    • Legal Aspects of Real Estate
    • Real Estate Office Administration
    • General Accounting
    • Business Law
    • Escrows
    • Mortgage Loan Brokering and Lending
    • Computer Applications in Real Estate
    • Common Interest Developments

Broker 的考照資格要求:

Applicants for a real estate broker license examination must have successfully completed the following eight statutorily required college-level courses:

  1. Real Estate Practice; and
  2. Legal Aspects of Real Estate; and
  3. Real Estate Finance; and
  4. Real Estate Appraisal; and
  5. Real Estate Economics or Accounting*; and
  6. Three courses from the following list:
    • Real Estate Principles
    • Business Law
    • Property Management
    • Escrow
    • Real Estate Office Administration
    • Mortgage Loan Brokering and Lending
    • Advanced Legal Aspects of Real Estate
    • Advanced Real Estate Finance
    • Advanced Real Estate Appraisal
    • Computer Applications in Real Estate
    • Common Interest Developments

*Note: If both Real Estate Economics and Accounting are taken, only two courses from the above group are required.

這二種執照的責任義務和可以做的工作項目有一些不同.

Salesperson (aka Real Estate Agent or Associate) 和Broker 最大的不同在於Broker可以獨立作業 (自己開業), 不用 “靠行”, 可以從事租賃管理.  Salesperson一定要加入某家Brokerage (靠行), 例如Keller Williams Realty, Coldwell Banker, Intero, etc., 因此要付公司月費, 與公司分佣金等等其他費用出現. 不是所有的地產經紀人都是Realtors, 因為Realtor是代表你有加入 National Association of Realtors (NAR) 成為會員.

Real estate agent expenses: Costs to consider

  • Pre-licensing education
  • Testing fees
  • Continuing education
  • Professional development and conferences
  • MLS fees
  • Association fees
  • Errors and Omissions insurance
  • Broker costs and desk fees
  • Self-employment income taxes
  • Health insurance
  • Office supplies
  • Internet and cell phone service
  • Technology products and services
  • Vehicle expenses

當你考過試, 拿到執照後, 每年固定會有的基本費用大概是六千多塊,

As an independent contractor, you’ll usually be responsible for your own health insurance, errors and omissions insurance, vehicle expenses, marketing and advertising, internet service, MLS fees, brokerage fees, continuing education, and many other real estate expenses. According to the NAR study mentioned above, a REALTOR’s average expenses in 2015 were $6,300.

  • MLS fees: $265 (including lockbox)
  • Association fees: Local + National Board $569 (Santa Clara County), Silver $220 (Peninsula and San Mateo County)
  • Errors and Omissions insurance: $900+
  • Broker costs and desk fees: $100+ per transaction fee, $100+ monthly desk fee, split commission

拿到房地產經理人執照後, 大部份的人選擇從事住宅經紀人, 貸款經紀人, 估價師, 但實際上這張執照可以從事的工作大概有三十種, 例如commercial agent, business sales, mortgage brokerage, loan processing, underwriting, credit analysis, foreclosure management, loan funding, investment, title insurance, appraisal, escrow, property management, and legal sides of the business.

一般大家最常接觸的就是住宅經紀人, 最想知道的就是買賣房子的地產佣金怎麼計算和分配, 很多人都以為做地產經紀都賺大錢, 其實不然. 應該說, 賺大錢的有, 但屬少數, 就像其他行業一樣.  根據 NAR 2016 Member Profile Report, the median gross income of REALTOR® (not every real estate agent is a REALTOR) was $39,200 in 2015. Those with 16 years or more experience earned the highest income: approximately $73,400 on average.

灣區中間房價大概是 $1,000,000 at a 6% commission rate which would be $60,000 that are typically paid by the property sellers and—by law—are negotiable. “Standard” commissions typically range from 5% to 7% for residential sales, depending on the local area. That commission is split between the buyer’s agent and the seller’s agent. For the purposes of this example, we’ll use 6%.

If you sell a home for $1,000,000, the 6% commission is $60,000. If another agent was involved in the transaction, your split becomes 3%, or $30,000 before split with your broker.  If you have a 70/30 split with your broker, that leaves you with $21,000 before advertising/marketing expenses, income taxes, health insurance, and no-paid vacation and sick days or 401K.

收入不穩定是Self-Employee or Independent Contractors 最大的擔憂, 尤其身為住宅經紀人, 沒有交屋, 就沒有收入, 但並不表示這段時間沒有開銷, 所以很多以為這行很好賺的人跳進來以後, 才發現這行不如想像中簡單, 就又跳出去找朝九晚五, 有保險, 有福利的工作了.

我對住宅地產的興趣, 從一開始的買和賣, Staging, Interior Design, Architecture, Furniture, Photography, 到後來的Remodel, Flip, Rental Management, 甚至和一些朋友聊過集資來做房地產, 看是要做短期Flip, 還是要做長期出租, 因為古人說, 有土斯有財, 房地產的重點就是 Location, Location, Location!!!  我常常看到一些不錯的投資機會, 可惜身邊沒有那麼多錢, 只好眼睜睜看著機會跑掉啊.

Anyway, 有買賣房子需求或房子想找人代為出租管理的, 別忘了我啊!!!

 

Property Management

PMC 1: Residential Property Management for the Real Estate Licensee

PMCPMC1: Residential Property Management for the Real Estate Licensee. (點連結可以看到課程大綱, 我只寫出我覺得一般人比較容易疏忽的重點)

The six P’s in Property Management are Problems, Profession, People, Profit, Property, Paperwork.

1. Problems: 問題一是Agent and/or the Owner都缺乏租賃管理的經驗, 甚至本身都一直是房客, 沒有當過屋主或房東. 問題二是沒有白紙黑字的合約書, 僅有口頭約. 問題三是房客利用租屋處從事非法活動. 問題四是房客中的成人搬走, 卻留下未成年繼續居住. 問題五是出租屋本身的合法性, 有可能沒有Permit或是不合法律上的居住尺寸. 問題六是出租屋的屋況歷史沒人知道.

2. Profession: Fair housing, equal opportunity, civil rights, and anti-discrimination.  這一塊是多數人常會出問題的, 尤其房東本身若是外來移民, 有可能因為文化背景的不同而犯錯, 所以要非常注意, 否則很容易就吃上官司.

The Fair Housing Act 禁止房東因為以下原因的歧視而不願出租: Race, Color, Ethnicity, National Origin, Ancestry, Religion, Sex or Sexual Orientation or Personal Characteristics, Marital Status and Familial Status, Pregnant Individuals, Handicap or Disability, and Income Source.

唯二例外的情況: (1)房東自住的房子要出租一間房的時候, 在自己管理的情況下, 可以提出性別的偏好. 例如我是女性屋主, 我有一個房間要出租, 我可以提出我只想租給女性的要求, 而不會有性別歧視的問題. (2) 整個住宅社區是由某個機構 (HOA)或私人俱樂部運作管理, 而他們限制只有會員可以使用. . . 不過即便這樣, 法律上還是對上述唯二例外的情況做出某些限制, 例如你不可以對不同租客做出不同的要求或限制, 不可以因為殘障而不出租等等.

建于1991年以前的老房子, 可能缺乏某些設施, 例如給輪椅走的斜坡.房東沒有責任要替殘障房客加裝某些設備, 但是房東不可以反對或禁止殘障房客自掏腰包去加裝那些設備,房東可以要求當殘障房客租約到期時, 殘障房客必須將房子恢復原狀.

房東可以有不准養寵物的規定, 除了殘障房客的Service Animal以外. 而房東可以要求殘障房客必須清除Service Animal的大小便, 且要求Service Animal必須受過訓練.

建于1991年以後的新房子, 若有電梯或是四個單位以上, 則有許多為了方便殘障房客的要求 – 例如公共區域必須方便殘障房客進出, 房門和公共走廊的寬度必須容納輪椅進出, 所有電源開關, 插座位子, 空調開關的位子都必須是殘障房客能操作的高度, 浴室的牆必須加強, 方便殘障房客加裝Grab Bars, 廚房和浴室都必須是方便殘障房客使用的環境, etc.

老人公寓之類的年紀限制並不屬於歧視.

租屋廣告或是電話上的用詞則要非常小心, 否則很容易違法 (政府常會派臥底去試探), 請不要使用以下用語:

The unit just went off the market.

We don’t take kids in this building.

People with kids can only be in building C which has no vacancy.

I rented that unit right after you called but before you got over here to see it.

You can’t put a ramp here.

We prefer only married couples.

No pets of any kind are allowed.

The “For Rent” sign is still up; days after an applicant is told that there are no vacancies.

The story told in person is different than what was told over the phone.

No one contacts the applicant after an applicant was completed and submitted.

The deposit is refused for a vacant unit.

Adult building; No children.

For active adults, single only.

Hispanic, Asian or African-American area.

Near Synagogue, Temple, Catholic Church, Shrine.

Male or Female only; Restrictive; Exclusive.

Ideal for Physically fit; Prefer bright, healthy person.

3. People/Players: 這一塊的重點在於On-Site Manager/Resident Manager/Building Superintendent. 如果管理員沒有地產執照, 則必須居住在出租單位處; 而出租公寓超過16個以上的物件, 旅館超過12間房, 則”必須”有管理員是住在出租公寓或旅館內.  如果出租單位在四個以上, 十六個以下, 而房東不住在出租單位處的話, 則必須在出租單位處最明顯的地方, 張貼房東以及管理經紀的姓名/地址/電話.  除非管理員是有Broker license or working under a Broker, 則不需要住在出租單位內, 但是正常上班時間必須要能夠被聯絡到.

On-Site Manager/Resident Manager/Building Superintendent的Compensation是Rent Credit toward minimum wage ($9/h before Jan 2016, $10/h after Jan 2016) not to exceed 2/3 of rental value but not more than $451.89/single, $668.46/couple.

4. Profit: 地產經紀被吊銷執照的首要原因就是違反信託基金法 (Trust Fund Law).  從事租賃管理的地產經紀必須在銀行另開沒有利息收入的信託帳戶 (可以每個租賃單位各開一個帳戶或者只開一個帳戶專門處理租賃管理的金錢來源, 但有記帳本, 清楚記載每個租賃單位的每筆收入支出), 租金必須先進入信託帳戶, 然後再將管理費轉到地產經紀的帳戶, 剩下的租金轉到房東的帳戶.

押金: 這一點也是房東自己管理會出現的常見錯誤.  現實生活中, 很多房東都以First month rent + Last month rent 來當作押金, 但是這樣的做法是錯誤的.  房租歸房租, 押金規押金, 否則的話, 房客最後一個月如果沒付房租, 房東把押金當作最後一個月的房租, 那等房客搬走, 房子受損, 你不就等於手上沒有押金可以扣了??  所以正確的做法是 – 空房出租的話, 二個月等值的房租金額是押金上限; 有含傢俱的出租房, 三個月等值的房租金額是押金上限, 外加第一個月的房租.  (假設房租是一千塊錢, 你可以收第一個月的房租, 外加二千塊或者三千塊的押金)

押金退還: 在房客要搬走的二天前, 房東或租賃經紀必須和房客一起做Inspection, 房東或租賃經紀在這個時候就要告知房客, 哪些地方必須在搬走前修繕, 否則會從押金扣.  押金必須在房客搬走後的21天內退還, 信託帳戶的記錄必須保存三年.

房東或租賃經紀的檢視權: 房東或租賃經紀有權前往出租處做檢查, 短期租賃的度假屋不需事先告知房客, 可以直接敲門; 長期租賃的則需要提前24小時告知.

租賃管理軟體: 講師建議即便只有一個房子出租, 還是很值得使用Property Management Software. 他推薦 Yardi, Appfolio, Buildium.

Capitalization Rate (Cap rate) 是計算投資報酬率. 公式: Net Operating Income (NOI) 除以Cap Rate = Estimated Property Value.

舉例: $120,000/6%=$2,000,000

也可以反過來, 算出Cap rate: $120,000/$1,820,000 = 6.6% (6-10%算是很好的報酬率)

*NOI is after property operating expenses are deducted.

5. Property:

6. Paperwork: 最重要的就是保險 – Insurance policies and coverage for $1M (for fire and hazard, and liability).  Lender don’t normally require E&O insurance but the owner will.

California Housing Code:  Every dwelling unit shall have at least one room which shall have not less than 120 sqft of floor area.  Each additional room, except for a kitchen, shall have at least 70 sqft.  When more than two persons occupy a room used for sleeping purposes and additional 50 sqft is required for each additional occupant.   不過在加州的各個城市可能會有自己特有的規定或例外.

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講座:

HGTV’s Income Property是我挺喜歡看的一個電視節目, 主持人Scott 本身投資很多Income Property, 在節目中提供屋主二個改造計劃, 二個不同的裝修預算和租金金額, 幫助屋主變成房東, 用租金收入來幫助付房貸, 減輕經濟上的負擔. 當然主持人Scott長得不錯也是個原因啦.

他即將來灣區做投資講座, 免費入場, 但需要事先報名, 有興趣學習投資房地產的人, 請不要錯過喔.
Jul 24, 12:00 PM Fremont
Jul 25, 9:00 AM Santa Clara
Jul 26, 9:00 AM Burlingame